Alliance Networks


The alliance network datasets were generated from the Alliance Treaty Obligations and Provisions Project (Leeds 2005). Anyone wishing to use these datasets should cite the ATOP project’s data should cite it as: Leeds, Brett Ashley, Jeffrey M. Ritter, Sara McLaughlin Mitchell, and Andrew G. Long. 2002. Alliance Treaty Obligations and Provisions, 1815-1944. International Interactions 28: 237-260. Also cite: Leeds, Brett Ashley 2005. Alliance Treaty Obligations and Provisions Codebook.

Alliance Data:

  1. Alliance Data (binary): This is a binary alliance file.
  2. Alliance Data (matrix): This is a matrix format outlay of the atopally.csv file.
  3. Alliance Data (symmetrized binary): An undirected (symmetrized) version of atopally.csv.
  4. Alliance Data (symmetrized matrix): An undirected (symmetrized) version of atopallymat.csv.

Defense Pact Data:

  1. Defense Pacts (dyadic): This is also a dyadic file with entries dij receiving the value of 1 if state i had either a defense pact or an offense pact obligation to state j,and zero otherwise. This file picks up the alliances with actionable commitments among states.
  2. Defense Pacts (matrix): The matrix version of defense pact data file, defoff.csv.
  3. Defense Pacts (symmetrized dyadic): The undirected version of deoff.csv.
  4. Defense Pacts (symmetrized matrix): The matrix version of the above symmetrized data file, symdefoff.csv.


  1. Alliance Network Dataset Codebook
  2. Alliance Treaty Obligations and Provisions Codebook